Preservation of fruits with BEESWAX

The fruits have an important role as a source of vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional adequacy of nutrition support. Bananas, for example, is one of the fruit contains a lot of carbohydrates and vitamin C. Similarly, citrus fruit and pear is a good source of vitamins and minerals which are quite good.

Not bear fruit kept longer and is also very susceptible to decomposition when people generally prefer to eat fresh fruit that is still in its original form.

Once harvested the fruit carries metabolic activity including respiration and transpiration. Respiration and transpiration activity will result in loss of substrate and water in the fruit until the fruit weight decreased. Respiratory activity can also lead to decrease vitamin C in fruit because ascorbic acid is very sensitive to oxidation. Further respiratory activity also resulted in soluble solids in fruit growing due to the accumulation of starch metabolism of glucose results.

One way to maintain the quality and freshness of the fruit is a layer of wax. Wax coating on the surface to prevent evaporation of water so it can slow withering away, inhibiting respiration rate, and polish the skin to increase the attractiveness of fruit for consumers. Wax coating and the thickness of the appropriate concentrations can prevent aerobic conditions in the fruit and provide the necessary protection against cuts and scratches on the surface of the fruit.

Several conditions need to wax as coating materials, among others: do not affect the smell and taste the fruit is coated, easy to dry, not fragile, shiny and smooth, does not produce a thick surface, low in cost, and non-toxic.

Beeswax are one of unexpected sources meet these requirements. Beeswax is a stable chemical nature of the melting point revolves around 61-690C, 200C gravity at around 0.96 and insoluble in water and slightly soluble in cold alcohol


Not just a regular profession

Discussion of criteria for a profession is an important discussion, because by knowing the criteria for a profession we can measure the extent to which an area of ​​expertise can be said as a profession. By knowing the position of the profession, we can find out shortcomings and-Things are problems faced by the profession.

A profession has basically the framework of knowledge, skill framework of values ​​and a systematic framework. Framework of knowledge, values ​​and skills are taught through formal education. This is what distinguishes a profession with non-professional

1. Knowledge Framework (Body of Knowledge)

In providing services to clients should use the scientific knowledge that has been verified. Knowledge is generally produced from research or practice that has been tested for accuracy and truth

2. Value Framework (Body of Value)

The concept much discussed in the literature value of the work, because the value has a profound influence in carrying out the work practices. Job in carrying out his duties affected by the values.

The source value of the work can basically be grouped into:

a. Values ​​of society
Work practices are always based on community values, because the profession of work to get the mission to implement most of the functions of society.

b. Code of Conduct
Code of Conduct is the formulation of guidance about behavior that is considered good and which need to be shown by members of the profession in carrying out his duties.

c. Agency Purpose
Workers should follow the rules that apply in the institution where the worker is working.

d. Theory
The theory is considered good if it can function as a value. Any theory of a profession have value.

3. Skills Framework (Body of skill)

Profession not only discusses theory but rather related to the implementation or practice. Application of a theory or knowledge needed skills, so that every profession should require skill. Skill is a blend of Body of Knowledge and the Body of value. Skills is an important component in the framework of reference work. Because skills in principle is a tool to integrate the knowledge and value framework.


How to Measure The Quality of Marriage?

Marital quality is closely connected with the concept of 'good marriage'. Measurement of marital quality may be through:

Happiness In Marriage (Marital Happiness).

Components of marital quality is the most widely used gauges. This concept refers to the feelings experienced by a person in her marriage. Happiness is a difficult concept is understood that no one can balance between the 'happiness' and 'unhappiness'. This difficulty is caused because it was dealing with complex emotions within oneself.

Satisfaction In Marriage (Marital Satisfaction).

The second component is to measure the quality of marriage through marital satisfaction experienced by the couple. This concept refers to the desires, hopes, and desires of each individual are met in a marriage. This component as a comprehensive assessment of an individual is subjective.

Adjustment In Marriage (Marital Adjustment).

This concept used to assess a comprehensive marriage. It used to assess how an individual look at his partner. Adjustments in marriage should be viewed from two different aspects. First, as a process and secondly as a way to judge a marriage. Both are seen as a continuum that moves, starting from the side that can not adapt and end on the side of how an individual can adjust to their partner.

Instability In Marriage (Marital instability).

The final component of the quality of the marriage is marital instability, which is defined as a form of a tendency to make the divorce as a way out of problems encountered. This concept consists of two components, namely the cognitive and behavior. Cognitively, married couples who have an idea that marriage is something that complicate and often thought about divorce. When a component's behavior can be seen in the form of actions such as: talk to friends about the divorce, seeking advice and assistance of lawyers, religious leaders, and counselors about how to divorce or marriage possibilities to deal with divorce.


Early Prevention of Malnutrition

Today has been a lot of problems of nutritional deficiency can be overcome. Nevertheless there are still some countries which still is a problem and require greater attention, namely the problem of micro nutrient deficiency, such as iodine, iron and vitamin A.

Malnutrition at an early age have an adverse impact on adulthood that is manifested in physical form are smaller with lower productivity levels. The impact of malnutrition at an early age becomes increasingly important when consider analysis of existing data. The results strengthen the hypothesis that analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition at an early age to the onset of degenerative diseases in adulthood that is precisely the productive age.

Malnutrition in childhood is always associated with a deficiency of specific vitamins and minerals, which are associated with certain micro nutrients. In recent years increasing attention to the consequences of micro nutrient deficiencies, starting from the increased risk of infectious disease and death that can inhibit growth and mental development.

The consequences of micro nutrient deficiencies during childhood are very dangerous. Iron deficiency can impair mental and motor development of children and also cause anemia. Zinc deficiency can also impair growth and increase the risk of diarrhea and respiratory infections. Given the high prevalence of deficiencies of certain nutrients as well as negative effects, the supplementation of nutrients such as iron and zinc in children will be very useful, especially because it is practically difficult to raise adequate nutrients from the diet of babies around for this. Some of the foods given to infants and children tend to inhibit iron absorption such as phytic acid and zinc contained in grains and dairy cows that can reduce the absorption of iron and zinc.

Specific micro nutrient supplementation always have obstacles and barriers. Nutritional needs of children aged 6-24 months increased with the rapid growth of the child. While breast's milk and eating a poor child can not meet those needs. It would require an alternative to meet the shortfall, that is by way of supplementation of certain substances that can help growing children.

In several countries have done some research on Zn and Fe supplementation. Several studies showed that zinc supplementation can reduce infectious diseases (diarrhea and cough) and increase the growth of children.


The Benefits of Execlusive Breastfeeding for Infants

1. As a nutrition

Each mammals are naturally prepared to have a pair or more of the milk glands. At birth the milk glands to produce milk for baby food. Breastfed infants gained during the process of breastfeeding will meet the nutritional needs of infants so as to support cognitive development.

2. Increase endurance baby

Infants who are still in the womb, are naturally going to get Immunoglobulin (immune substances) from the mother through the umbilical cord. However, levels of this substance will rapidly decline after the baby is born. The new baby's body makes enough antibodies to reach protective levels at aged 9 to 12 months. At levels of innate immune substances decreased, while that formed by the baby's body then there is not enough substance in the baby gap. The gap will disappear or be reduced if infants were given breast milk, because milk is a fluid that contains antibodies that will protect infants from infectious diseases, viruses, parasites, and fungi.

3. Improve intelligence

Development of intelligence is closely related to brain growth. There are two factors that affect intelligence. Genetic factors and environmental factors.

a. Genetic or congenital factors determine the potential genetic or congenital inherited by parents. This factor can not be manipulated or engineered.

b. Environmental factors are the factors that determine whether genetic factors will be achieved at an optimum. This factor has many aspects and can be manipulated or engineered.

In addition to the above major factors that affect brain growth of infants and children is a nutrient or nutrients it receives. The most rapid brain development
occurred at the age of 0-2 or 3 years, in which brain volume will reach 80%.

Therefore, breastfeeding is needed at this time. Although the brain has undergone rapid development during this period, it does not mean that the development of the brain just stop there. The volume of the brain will continue to grow until the age of 12 years. The best nutrition for babies is breast milk for brain development in which are LC-PU FA. Two types of LC-PU FA that is needed for the development of the infant brain is DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) as one type of omega-3 fatty acids and AA (arachidonic acid) as one type of omega-6 fatty acids.

4. Increase compassion

Babies are often located in the arms of his mother for breastfeeding mothers will feel the love. He will also feel safe and secure, especially as it still can hear the heartbeat of his mother he has known since the womb. Feeling protected and cherished is the basis for emotional development of infants and establish a confident personality and a good spiritual foundation.

5. Basic personality development of children

Breastfed babies will strengthen the mother-child bond. Sense of security in the baby will grow when he was in his mother's arms. He enjoys a touch of soft leather and hear the heart of the mother as she had known during the pregnancy. These conditions are the basis for the development of warm emotions in children. Through the process of breastfeeding, the child will learn to share and give love to those around him.


The Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding

The basis of quality human capital formation begins as a baby in the womb, along with breastfeeding (breast milk) from an early age about 30 minutes after birth, especially exclusive breastfeeding is giving only breast milk to babies from birth to age 6 months or at least until age 4 the month.

Breast milk is an ideal source of nutrition with a balanced composition and tailored to the needs of the growing baby. For infants, breast milk is the most perfect food, both quality and quantity. Besides breast milk also contains immune substances which are very important in preventing the onset of various diseases, are also able to increase the inner intimacy between mother and child who desperately needed in the future.

Breast milk is unique to infants because of their chemical composition, has a specific biological value, and has the specific substance. The third trait is exactly what distinguishes breast milk with formula milk. The composition of breast milk vary with the composition of cow's milk, because dairy cows adapted to the growth rate of calves and milk is adjusted to the rate of growth of a human child. Breast milk contains more than 200 constituents, such as albumen, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, growth factors, hormones, enzymes, antibodies and white blood cells.

With proper management of breastfeeding, breast milk foods will be sufficient to meet the needs of a single normal infants until the age of 6 months. According to research, children who are not breastfed have IQ (Intellectual Quotient) over seven to eight points lower than children who were breastfed exclusively.

Exclusive breastfeeding is breastfeeding the baby for 6 months without any other liquid materials such as infant formula, sugar water, honey water, or plain water without any food additives are also other woods such as bananas, biscuits or milk porridge. According to the Institute of medicine, defined as consumption of exclusively breastfed babies will breast milk without supplements of any kind (water, juice, food in any form) except for vitamins, minerals, and treatment.

Exclusive breastfeeding is breastfeeding as early as possible after delivery, provided no timetable and no other food was given, although only water until the baby is six months old.


The Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding for Mother

1. Reducing bleeding after childbirth

If the baby is breastfed immediately after birth so the likelihood of bleeding after delivery will be reduced. When the baby is sucking the mother's nipple, pituitary gland will be stimulated to increase production of the hormone oxytocin to stimulate contractions of the muscles in the breast milk so the milk line radiated out. This is because in breastfeeding mothers increased levels of oxytocin which is useful for blood vessel constriction or closure more quickly so that the bleeding will stop.

2. Reduce the occurrence of anemia

When postpartum hemorrhage did not occur or stop sooner, then the risk of blood deficiency causing anemia in the mother will be reduced. Cessation of bleeding after delivery will reduce the risk of death and blood deficiency causing anemia in the mother.

3. Spacing pregnancies

Other benefits of exclusive breastfeeding is a natural contraceptive that can prevent pregnancy. The possibility to prevent pregnancy can reach 99%. However, there are three conditions that must be met, the baby has not fed the other, not yet six months old baby, and mother has not menstruate.

4. Shrink the uterus

Oxytocin levels increased breastfeeding mothers will greatly help the uterus return to pre-pregnancy size. This reduction process will be faster compared with mothers who did not breastfeed. With breastfeeding, maternal fat reserves that is prepared as an energy source will be used during pregnancy as the milk-forming energy. As a result, the fat reserves will shrink, so the mother's weight loss will happen more quickly.

5. More quickly slim back

Breastfeeding requires then the body will take energy from the fat accumulated during pregnancy. Thus, mothers who breast-feeding weight will quickly return to pre-pregnancy weight.

6. Reduce the likelihood of suffering from cancer

In women who are exclusively breastfed, the possibility of suffering from breast and ovarian cancer is reduced. Some research suggests that breastfeeding would reduce the likelihood of breast cancer. In general, if all women can continue to breastfeed until the baby is 2 years old or older, suspected breast cancer incidence was reduced to 25%.

7. More economical / cheap

With the benefits of breastfeeding means saving expenditures for infant formula, breastfeeding supplies, preparation of formula milk to drink. In addition, breast-feeding also saves baby's expenses for medical treatment, such as the cost of physician services, the cost of purchasing drugs, perhaps even the cost of hospital care.

8. No hassle and time saving

Milk may be given to the baby without having to prepare or cook water, also without having to wash bottles, and without waiting for the milk is not too hot. Bottle feeding would be more troublesome, especially at night.

9. Portable and practical

Easy to carry anywhere (portable), so the move does not need to carry a variety of tools to drink formula and not have to carry an electric appliance to cook or warm milk. Milk can be given anywhere and anytime in a state ready to eat / drink, as well as the temperature is always right.

10. Provide satisfaction for the mother

Mothers who had exclusive breastfeeding will feel a deep satisfaction and happiness. Sense of pride and happiness because it can give something of himself for the sake of her baby (breastfeeding) will strengthen the inner relationship between mother and baby.


The Myths of Exclusive Breastfeeding

Many myths about breastfeeding makes the mother became less confident to breastfeed their babies. Myth was not reasonable and makes the mother becomes chose to stop breastfeeding and formula feeding choose as an alternative.

These myths were:

1. Breastfeeding causes difficulty losing weight

The data prove that breastfeeding can help mothers lose weight more quickly than those not breast feed exclusively. For the feeding of fat deposits that occur during pregnancy will be used in the process of breastfeeding, while women who do not breastfeed will be difficult to eliminate fat deposits that specifically prepared the body for breastfeeding.

2. Breastfeeding change the shape of the breast

Actually the change of the breasts is a pregnancy, not breastfeeding. Pregnancy causes the release of hormones and cause the formation of water that fills the breast milk. Breast that had been occupied by the milk, would be differently shaped breasts that have never filled milk. Magnitude of change in breast shape depends on the derivative of (hereditary), age, and also by the weight gain during pregnancy.

3. Breast milk has not come out on the first days that need to be supplemented with formula. 
On the first day the baby is actually not require liquid or food, so it has not required formula feeding breast milk or other liquid prior to exit (prenatal liquid feeding). Babies age of 30 minutes should be given breast milk, not for nutrition but to learn to breastfeed or get used to suck the nipple, and also to prepare mothers to produce milk. Movement reflex to suck in the newborn will peak at age 20 - 30 minutes, so that in case of late lactation, this reflex will be reduced and no longer stronger until several hours later.

Giving prenatal feeding was not really necessary, because it would harm the mother, the mother's breast milk will be slower formation because the baby is not strong enough to suck and hurt the baby because the baby will not receive colostrum. If your baby gets little or no colostrum, will more often suffer from diarrhea or other illnesses, especially if the infant formula or other liquids contaminated prenatal. Besides, if it is given by the dot prenatal fluids, likely the baby will have difficulty taking on the nipple.

4. Working mothers not to breast feed exclusively

At a working mother, another way to still be able to breastfeed her baby exclusively on breast milk is by giving to the baby during the mother's work. During the mothers in the workplace, better breast milk milked a minimum of 2 x 15 minutes. Expressing breast milk should only be using your fingers, do not use a trumpet-shaped pump. Dairy milk stand 6-8 hours in the air outside, 24 hours in a flask containing ice cubes, 48 ​​hours in the refrigerator, and 3 months when in the freezer. With the help of "Mother Friendly Workplace", which allows an employee workplace breastfeeding exclusively, the success of working mothers for exclusive breastfeeding will become even greater.

5. Small breasts do not produce enough milk

Large or small breast form does not determine much or at least milk production, because only large breasts contain more fatty tissue than small breasts. While breast milk is formed by forming glandular breast tissue (alveoli) and not fat tissue.

6. The first breast milk should be thrown out because of gross

Milk that comes out on day 1 to day 5 and day-to-7 is called colostrum. This yellowish clear fluid containing albumen, or high levels of protein, anti-infective agents, or immune substances (immunoglobulins), in levels higher than in mature milk, as it also contains lactose, or carbohydrate and fat low levels of so easily digested.
The volume of colostrum varies between 10 cc to 100 cc per day. This low volume provides a minimal load for the kidneys of immature infants. The main task of colostrum is to protect infants against infectious diseases other than as a nutrient.

7. Due to drink a lot, not enough can be breastfed babies

Most babies are not due to a lack of breastfeeding mothers can not produce as much milk the baby takes, but it is a baby who can not suck as much as it needs. Milk production is stimulated by the emptying of the breast. Milk produced in accordance with the needs of the baby. During the baby still needs breast milk, as long as it's also the mother's breasts will still produce milk. If the baby stops breast-feeding by sucking, the mother's breasts will stop producing milk.


The Dangers of Head Injuries

The skull of the child is still elastic and have the ability to experience deformation, then the child's skull can absorb some of the energy of physical strength so that it can provide protection to the brain.

Head injury in children is a cause of death and disability are high. In children with severe head injury ± 50% had neurology symptoms Sesa and ± 2% -5% a severe disability leave. Because the incidence of head injuries in children is high enough, it is necessary to early diagnosis, care, treatment and observe the course of the disease is key in preventing head injuries.

Cause Head Injuries

Scalp, hair, bones, skulls and bones of the face protect the brain from injury. When the injury with moderate pressure linear fracture can occur, but when with high strength can cause a depression fracture. Brain and skull respond differently to acceleration and deceleration forces caused by the blow.

This type of injury that can cause damage to the head and brain tissue pressure varied from the lightest to traffic accidents. In children less than 4 years of head injuries are often caused by falls from a table, chairs, stairs, beds and others. Whereas in older children is often caused by riding a bike or traffic accidents.

Some things to keep in the observations in terms of head injury, are:

Vital functions
Elevated blood pressure accompanied by irregular respiration (Cushing's triad) indicate a high intracranial pressure. Rapid pulse accompanied by hypo tension and irregular breathing may be caused by disorders of the brain stem functions such as the occipital fracture.

Large needs to be checked and the reaction of the pupil. Retinal hemorrhages are often seen on Sub arachnoid hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage

Examined whether there is injury, hematoma or fracture. If there is pain or stiffness in the neck or Sub arachnoid hemorrhage

Ear and nose
Examined whether there is bleeding or cerebrospinal fluid out of nose / ear. Bleeding ears accompanied ecchymoses in the mastoid region (Battle's sign) may be due to fracture the cranial base.

The abdomen should also be checked against the possibility of intra-abdominal hemorrhage.


The Beginning of Science of Psychology

Seen historically can be argued that the oldest science is science philosophy. Other sciences that belong in philosophy, and philosophy is the only science at that time. Therefore, the sciences are incorporated in the philosophy will be influenced by the nature of philosophy, as does psychology.

Eventually, it was realized that philosophy as the only science is less able to meet human needs. It is recognized that matters relating to life is no longer enough simply explained by philosophy. At the time of psychology is still affiliated with the philosophy, rationale thinking in line with the development of science in the days before the Renaissance, namely, as the only science is less able to meet human needs.

Since the beginning of growth until the mid-19th century, more psychology developed by thinkers and philosophers, which underlies the lack of observations on concrete facts. They are more trusting of philosophical thinking and considerations of abstract and speculative. Theories that they create more based on personal experience and understanding at a glance. Therefore, it is understandable that the psychology of the time are less credible.

In a further development of psychology, felt the need to use other methods, to ensure objectivity as a science, ie using the "empirical". Empirical methods rely on: experience, observation, and experimental (empirical, empiria, which means the experience and observation), where this is in line with the findings of modern science that has been initiated in the Renaissance.

Renaissance (14-17 M) instill a strong influence for the development of modern science that shows several things, such as:
observations, the removal of all the things that are not included in the observed events, idealization, the preparation of a speculative theory of events such, forecasting, measurement and experiments to test the theory based on mathematical predictions.

With this development, the psychology that had been transformed into a psychological conception of the philosophic nature is empirical. In this case, even psychology eventually broke away from philosophy, psychology but still has a relationship with philosophy, even the sciences that have split off from philosophy was still there a relationship with philosophy, especially philosophy of science, especially on matters that concerning the nature, nature, and purpose of science.

Thus, it will be analyzed more about the actuality of philosophy of science in the development of science as the basis for his philosophy, particularly psychology. Both in terms of ontology, epistemology and its axiology.


Beware of Toxic materials

In today's modern industrial era increase in the use of chemicals is inevitable. Correspondingly the number of illnesses caused by these chemicals (also called the work of disease) also increases. This is especially true in industries where the means of salvation work of employees is inadequate.

Chemicals (toxic materials) that are used or produced by an industry can be a gas, solid, liquid does not evaporate, and volatile. These toxic materials can cause diseases of the skin, eyes, internal organs and digestive tract where the mouth is a part.

The oral cavity is the entrance of food into the body. If the oral cavity have a disease then by itself the amount of food that enters the body is reduced. This will cause a weakened physical condition resulting in employees working ability is reduced, so that industry production capacity is also reduced. The ability of an industry is measured by production capacity, then it is proper oral diseases in addition to other work because of illness should receive attention.

There is often an employee of an industry to come for treatment to dentists with symptoms of diseases of the oral cavity. Once treated, the disease was not cured or healed although relapse repeatedly. This can happen because as dentists forget to ask about the type of work the employee.

An oral cavity diseases that repeatedly suffered by the employee, the employee can occur due to continuous contact with a type of toxic material used in the industries in which the employee works. In this paper outlined some oral diseases caused by several types of toxic materials.


Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is one health problem, especially in infants and children, because of its chronic recidivist, so it can affect the quality of life of patients. Atopic dermatitis is most common in infants, but can also in children and adults. In most patients,

Atopic dermatitis is the first clinical manifestation of atopy, and many of them later will develop asthma and allergic rhinitis. Although genetic predisposition is one of the most important risk factor, but the increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis in industrialized countries suggests that environmental factors (exposure to microbes and nutrients) also have an important role.
The etiology of atopic dermatitis is not definitely known, but the atopic dermatitis is due to the interaction between genetic, environmental, skin barrier effects and immune system. The main symptom of atopic dermatitis is itching. Itching is a major problem during sleep, when conscious control of scratching is lost. For infants, atopic dermatitis can lead to unhappy circumstances and disrupted by irritation in the area of ​​skin accompanied by intense itching, scratching, until the occurrence of infection. All this can make the baby becomes fussy, feeding process to be disrupted, and ultimately will affect the growth process.

There is no total cure for atopic dermatitis, but the symptoms tend to diminish with the passage of age. Of all infants with atopic dermatitis, only a third of cases still continue to experience disease recurrence until childhood.

It is also found in those still suffering from atopic dermatitis in childhood, only about one-third of cases continued to adolescence. Most people experience periods of remission and periods of relapse of this disease for many years.

Factors that can cause persistent atopic dermatitis, among others, a history of family members who suffer from atopic dermatitis, the picture is more widespread disease in early life and the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis which occur simultaneously


The Prostitution

Prostitution is derived from the Latin "pro-stituere" / "pro-stauree", which means allowing ourselves commit adultery, do whoredom, fornication.

Prostitution is a "profession" of very old age, as old as human life itself. Namely in the form of uninhibited behavior without control and obscene, sexual appetite due to impingement with the opposite sex without knowing the limits of decency.

Apparently, in times past that prostitution has a connection with the worship of gods and certain religious ceremonies. Prostitution is not only tolerated, but also there are religious practices that lead to sin and lewd behavior is not different from prostitution.

Prostitution is always there in all civilized countries, since time immemorial. And always be a social problem, or becomes the object of legal affairs and
tradition. Further, with technological developments, industrial and human culture, prostitution is also co-evolved in various forms and levels. Prostitution is a form of social ills that are difficult to stop its spread.

In many countries prostitution is forbidden, even penalties. Also regarded as an act of contempt by all members of society. However, since the first human society so that the world would end later, "livelihood" This prostitution will remain there; difficult, even almost could not possibly be eradicated from the face of the earth, as long as there are still sex lust out of control will and conscience.

Harlots mostly in the cities, the traffic areas where tourists and cruise / spree, in which many visited the people who want to vacation, relax or travel. In general, in these places apply the principle of Tourism 4-S, namely Sea, Sun, Service and Sex. So to hold both men and women, organized prostitution practices; officially in brothels and specific locations, seeps or unofficially to hotels, guesthouses, lodgings and places of entertainment.


The Food Additives

Food additives are compounds (or a mixture of various compounds) are intentionally added to food and is involved in processing, packaging and / or storage, and is not a material (ingredient) key. Food additives and degradation products, usually remains in the food, but there are some who deliberately separated during processing.

The addition of Food Additives generally aims to

(1) improve the nutritional value of food,

(2) improve the sensory value of food,

(3) extend the shelf life (shelf life) food.

Additional ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids are usually added to improve and / or increase the nutritional value of a food. Many foods are enriched or fortified with vitamins to restore vitamins lost during processing, such as the addition of B vitamin to flour, or the addition of vitamin A into milk. Iron minerals added to enrich the nutritional value of food, mainly because of the iron in food generally has a bio availability low.

Color, odor, and consistency / texture of a food can be changed or reduced due to processing and storage. This can be improved by the addition of Food Additives as dyes, color-forming compounds, confirmation flavors, thickeners, stabilizers, and others. Formation of a distorted smell (off flavor) on fat products can be prevented by the addition of antioxidants. Texture of food can be improved by the addition of minerals, emulsifiers, thickeners and / or stabilizers such as monoglycerides, hydro colloid, and others.

Food processing lately have a tendency to produce food that is a long shelf life (durable) and easy to prepare (convenient). It is driven by factors such as material properties of fresh food that is generally easily damaged (perishable) and seasonal, as well as the lifestyle that want things easy and fast. To get such food, one of the businesses that use is to add a preservative, both to prevent the growth of microbes and to prevent the occurrence of chemical reactions that are not desired during processing and storage.

Food Additives is often used to produce food for special groups such as diabetics, patients who had undergone surgery, those who run a low-calorie diets or low-fat, and so on. Various Food Additives used for this purpose include artificial sweeteners, fat substitutes, thickeners, and others.


Mycobacterium Leprae causes Leprosy

Leprosy is an infectious disease that can cause various problems are very complex and extensive, which posed problems not only in terms of the medical course, but may extend up to the problems of economic, social, cultural, security, and resilience of social and psychological problems.

Problems of self in people with leprosy in general feel inferior, feel depressed mind, afraid of the family and the surrounding communities, so people tend to live alone, apathy (indifference), being dependent on others, loss of role in the community (isolated), loss of income or job, do not want the school (children), reluctant to seek treatment because of shame on the surrounding community. 
In addition to causing problems for sufferers, leprosy disease also poses a problem for families and communities around the lepers, namely the behavior of family and society that tends to exclude or remove leprosy sufferers, causing stress on the leper. Under these conditions it can slow the healing of lepers.

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by germs of leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) that attacks the nervous edge, skin and other tissue growth.

The cause of leprosy is leprosy germs, which are rod-shaped with a length of 1-8 mic, width 0.2 to 0.5 mic is usually scattered in groups and there is one-one, live in cells and are resistant to acid.

The period is divided self leprosy germs need a very long compared with other bacteria, ie 12-21 days. This is one of the causes of the long shoots of an average of 2-5 years.

The Transmission

Leprosy can be transmitted from the type of leprosy Multi bacillary (MB) to others by way of direct transmission. Exact mode of transmission is unknown, but most experts believe that leprosy can be transmitted through the respiratory system and skin.

Incidence of leprosy is not easy for a person, and not to be feared depends on several factors, among others:

1. Sources Transmission factors:
Source of infection is the type of MB leprosy patients. Patients with MB leprosy even this will not pass, if the medication regularly.

2. Leprosy Germs factors:
Leprosy germs can live outside the human body between 1-9 days depending on temperature or weather, and is known only leprosy germs are intact (solid) alone can lead to infection.

3. Body Endurance Factor:
Most humans are immune to leprosy (95%).


The World of Sex Workers

Talking about the world of sex workers, then we'll talk about a world that are multidimensional and multi sectoral. It is present, developing, less recommended, permitted until prohibited greatly depending on the context of the discourse that developed starting from the perspective of legal, political, economic, social and cultural rights to religious morality. More than those sexual problems are also related to psychological issues. Under what circumstances and how the world of sex workers were always present, from the hidden to overt.

Prostitution has old age, always there in people's lives for thousands of years ago. Sex and women are the two key words associated with prostitution. Sex is a human need that always exists in human beings and can appear suddenly. Sex can also mean an abstract expression of human love of beauty. While the woman is a type of God's creatures that are created as a symbol of beauty. Then the phenomenon that often occurs in the community is always synonymous with female sex.

But, unfortunately again, which is always a victim of sexual greed is also a woman. Due to the woman as a symbol of beauty, each a beautiful typically the target market that is always used as a commodity that is able to make money. That is why there are always women who gather in one place and trying to "sell" to anyone who requires "instant service". Men, although there who sell themselves, but rarely found collected in one place as well as women, or if there is any, generally the men are transformed into a woman so recognized that her beauty is easy to determine the desired rate.

If viewed from a broader view. We'll find out that actually made a sex worker is an activity that involves not only the women who provide sexual services to receive financial rewards. But this is a commercial activity that involves many parties. This trade network also stretches in a wide area, which is sometimes not only within one country but several countries.


Tuberculosis Disease

Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. WHO estimates that tuberculosis causes 6% of all deaths worldwide, the most common cause of death from a single bacterial infection and in people with low socioeconomic.

Tuberculosis can involve the lymph nodes is the most common form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions showed an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Therefore, the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis is a challenge. Criteria for clinical and cytological picture like tubercles that are used to diagnose a sensitivity and specificity are unsatisfactory and can lead to excessive diagnoses, especially in countries with high endemic rates of tuberculosis.

Until now the diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on acid-fast bacilli encountered with traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a culture obtained from biopsy specimens or aspirates taken by fine needle aspiration. Examination of culture that takes a long time began to be abandoned as a routine diagnostic examination, sensitivity and low specificity and often give negative results.

Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique commonly used to diagnose extra pulmonary tuberculosis, such as the lymph nodes, bone, and cold abscess in any location on the body and is a technique that is simple, sensitive and diagnosis can be obtained on the same day. Lymphadenopathy is a form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. These cases often come to practice almost every day cytologists.

In pathology cytological picture of cytological preparations that had been held for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was encountered granulomatous inflammatory cells form cells classic epithelioid histiocytes on a background of lymphocytes, multi nucleated giant cells of the type of foreign body or Langhans type giant cells and can or showed no necrosis.


Thalassaemia Disease

Health in modern times is increasingly complex. Various kinds of factors such as environment, current circumstances are very influential to ease a variety of dangerous diseases lurk. A disease can affect anyone, whether male, female, old, young, even children though. It's a natural thing when the parents yearn to have children who are healthy both physically and psychologically, can pass through normal developmental stages, play, and enjoy all the usual flow of life lived by other children. However, not all parents are given a healthy child. Some of them are serious diseases, such as leukemia disease or blood disorder Thalassaemia.

Thalassaemia is a genetic disorder most often encountered and is also a disease that many experienced Americans, descendants of Italian. There are more than 100,000 babies worldwide are born with serious circumstances and conditions of such Thalassaemia, sallow skin, face thalassaemia and so on.

Until now the cause of progression of the disease still Thalassaemia can not be known apart from the second derivative of the genetic parents of the patient. Almost a phenomenon similar to the issue of HIV / AIDS which is iceberg phenomenon, as well as that in the estimate of Thalassaemia number of sufferers are not recorded more than the amount patients are recorded. Another definition states Thalassaemia is a blood disorder caused by lack of hemoglobin, so the need for regular blood transfusions.

The other problem is this disease is a disease pathway to a lifetime, meaning that this disease is a disease that can not be cured. Medical action is carried out so far will not cure but as a supportive and temporary to sustain life. The above is enough to make anyone experience the burden of mind such as anxiety and stress, especially in parents of children with The Thalassaemia disease. Cost issues and the most severe risks
are encountered by children is a major factor parental anxiety.


Natural Antioxidants helps protect the body

Naturally, every living creature or organism will arrive at the process of growing old. The old process is normal and unavoidable. Old process is considered as the normal life cycle when the arrival time. Unfortunately, sometimes there is a process of premature aging too fast. Advancement of Science later discovered that a lot of factors causing early old process that is partly due to genetic factors, lifestyle, environment, genetic mutations, immune system damage and free radicals.

Of all the factors, the free radical theory is the theory most frequently expressed. Free radicals can come from pollution, dust and produced continuously as a consequence of normal metabolism. Therefore our body requires a substance that is an important antioxidant that helps protect the body from free radical attack by damping the negative effects of this compound.

Antioxidants serve to overcome or neutralize free radicals that are expected with the old process of granting these antioxidants inhibited or at least "not accelerating" and can prevent damage to the body of the onset of degenerative diseases.

The sources of antioxidants can be either synthetic or natural antioxidants. But today the use of synthetic antioxidants began to be restricted, because it turns out the results of research that has been done that synthetic antioxidants such as Butylated Hydroxy Toluene it can poison animals and carcinogenic. Therefore, food industry and medicine move to develop a natural antioxidant and find sources of new natural antioxidants.

There are many foods that can be a source of natural antioxidants, such as spices, tea, chocolate, leaves, seeds, Cereal seeds, vegetables, enzymes and proteins. Most are plant sources of natural antioxidants and phenolic compounds are generally scattered throughout the plant both in wood, seeds, leaves, fruits, roots, flowers and pollen.

Phenolic or poly phenolic compounds, among others, may be a flavonoid. The ability of flavonoids as antioxidants has been studied this past year, in which flavonoids have the ability to alter or reduce free radical as well as anti-free radical.


Mental Health Development

Mentally healthy person is not only about avoiding her understanding of both psychiatric disorders and neuroses and psychoses, but should also be seen the extent to which a person is able to adapt itself and its environment, able to harmonize the functions of his soul, unable to cope with life problems including anxiety and inner conflicts that exist, and be able to actualize her potential to achieve happiness.

The term itself to obtain the understanding of mental health is diverse as development, are as follows:
  • Mental health is the ability to adjust oneself to others and society and the environment in which he lives and interacts.
  • Mental health is the knowledge and practice that aims to develop and exploit all the potential, talent and disposition of existing as closely as possible, so as to bring happiness to self and others and of the disturbances and psychiatric illness.
  • Mental health is the realization of genuine harmony between the functions of the soul, as well as having ability to facing ordinary problems that occur and in a positive sense of happiness and ability.

One can try to maintain his mental health by upholding its principles in life, namely:
  1. Having self-image or image and attitude toward oneself is positive.
  2. Has a self interaction or balance functions of the soul in the face of life's problems, including stress.
  3. Able to actualize the proceeds to reach optimal maturity.
  4. Able to socialize and accept the presence of others
  5. Find interest and satisfaction for a job well done
  6. Have a philosophy or religion that can give meaning and purpose to his life.
  7. Introspective or has control of all the activities that arise.
  8. Having a sense of right and responsible attitude of his actions.


HOW Toxic material cause Oral Disease

The oral cavity is the top part of the digestive tract. The main part of the oral cavity are the lips, tongue, mucosa, gums, jaw bones, teeth and pharynx. Every part of the oral cavity may be suffering from certain diseases caused by certain types of toxic materials as well.

A toxic material can cause diseases of the oral cavity in two ways. The first is direct. This can happen if toxic material directly into the oral cavity, such as through food contaminated with toxic materials or inadvertently consumed some type of toxic materials. Both are indirectly or also called systemic. This occurs when toxic materials through the skin or respiratory tract into the body, absorbed by the blood, then spreads throughout the body including the oral cavity region.

The first way would cause the symptoms of an acute disease of the oral cavity, whereas the latter will lead to chronic symptoms. What ever happens is the second way.

Severity of oral diseases caused by toxic materials is influenced by several factors, among others:

1. Doses of toxic materials.

The entry of toxic material into the body primarily through respiratory tract is by breathing air contaminated by toxic materials. By itself the higher levels of toxic materials in air pollution more severe disease it causes.

2. The duration of contact with toxic materials.

The longer an employee in contact with toxic materials caused more severe disease.

3. Conditions of employment.

The point here working conditions for employees means of salvation. Examples of employees who work with wearing a nose / mouth (mask) will suffer the nuisance rather than not taking cover nose / mouth.

4. Conditions of employees.

Employees with poor physical conditions such as tartar will suffer a more severe disorder. Another example of employees who are smokers will also suffer a more severe disorder than non-smokers.


Natural Contraceptive with Solanum betaceum Cav.

Increasing the drug industry, especially contraceptive drugs in the last decade have spurred commercial utilization of various species as a source Solasodin. Aglicon Solasodin is an alkaloid that has a steroid nucleus, with the formula up as diosgenin. Solanum steroid alkaloids can be used as a base for the manufacture of some steroid hormones are used for oral contraception. This upsets the balance of steroid alkaloid gonadotropin hormones, both male and female

Solanum betaceum Cav., eggplant-type plants of the family Solanaceae. Solanum betaceum Cav., Is a shrub or tree, trunk 2-3 m high with a trunk diameter of 4 cm, the shape of round rods, kordatus leaf shaped leaves, veins prominent, long petiolus 7-10. Flowers small, have bunches, pink to blue color of eggplant with a diameter of 1 cm and oval-shaped fruit.

Solanum betaceum Cav., Initially known as Cyphomandra betaceae, but later revised to Solanum betaceum Cav., Which is included in the family Solanacae. In 100 g of Solanum betaceum Cav., Containing 82.7 to 87.8 g of water, protein 1.5 g fat from 0.06 to 1.28 g, carbohydrates 10.3 g, fiber 1.4 to 4.29 g ; ash from 0.66 to 0.94 mg; carotene 0.371 to 0.653 mg vitamin D 540 IU and vitamin C from 23.3 to 44.9 mg. If the fruit is cooked, then most of the vitamin C is lost.

Solanum mauritianum is a small tree or shrub native of South America, including northern Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. This plant has a life time of up to thirty years, and can grow to reach 33 feet. This plant has large oval leaves are green to shades of gray. The flowers are purple with yellow center. This plant can bloom all year round and can grow on various soil types.

These plants contain compounds Solasodin glycoalkaloid, with the highest content in the raw fruit green (2% - 3.5% dry weight). Solaurisin, Solauricidine, and Solasodamin also had been found in Solanum mauritianum.

The ability of plant species solanacea in lowering sperm counts, reduced sperm mobility and increase the number of abnormal sperm such as motility, viability and sperm membrane integrity, so that impair fertility in men lies in Solasodin.


The role of Women in Advertising

Ads are news order to encourage, persuade the general public about the goods or services offered, sold or installed in the mass media such as magazines, newspapers and television. As the language of communication, advertising has its own language structure. Structurally ads consist of signs, i.e the smallest elements of language.

The sign consists of a marker (signifier), which is something that is material in the form of pictures or illustrations and the marker is the concept (signified) or meaning (meaning) is behind all of these markers can be used to describe reality.

Talking about women's body language is inseparable from her physical appearance. Thus, any form of appearance of the female body is a conversation that never runs out, as in a variety of themes always appear at any debate starts from head to tip of nails. Likewise, in media advertising in both television and print media ads which partly looks always take advantage of a woman's body language as one of the images appeal to the consumption of a product. The concept of body language is defined as a unique nonverbal communication signals, one can convey a message or express themselves through movement consciously or subconsciously, body movements and facial expressions can be a direct replacement of language and verbal language serves as a description, or as a medium to hide actual intent.

Some good advertising medium of television or print media describing as though decent to eat is what is in effect advertising potential female consumers racing to buy a product that has similarities with what is objectified by advertising. Beautiful woman's body becomes an economic commodity labels are very effective advertising medium, especially for the culture of modern industrial society.


The Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infection is an infection caused by various bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative. The infection is found in all ages, in men and women. Symptoms vary from mild to severe and the infection can progress if left untreated can even endanger the lives of sufferers.

The diagnosis can be established by clinical and laboratory. Diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory examination to determine the etiology and microbiology can be tested at the same time sensitivity to various antibiotics.

Escherichia coli is a bacterium gram-negative often reported as the most common cause of urinary tract infections. However, recent gram-positive bacteria were beginning to show a rising trend as a cause of urinary tract infections, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. saprophyticus.

Staphylococcus aureus is a highly virulent bacterium that can cause infections, including urinary tract, especially in patients with
'Indwelling catheters. " In the pre-antibiotic era, Staphylococcus aureus causes infections that cause abscesses haematogenous renal cortex and perinefric. In the era of antibiotics, the bacteria associated with urinary tract manipulation, including urinary tract catheterization, and antibiotic use.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the second most frequent cause of urinary tract infections in young adult women. Although it has been found that penicillin-resistant strains, but the organism is sensitive to most other antibiotics.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus belong to the coagulase-negative staphylococci, did not ferment mannitol and resistant to novobiosin. Growth is not as fast or Staph.aureus E.coli in the urine or routine culture media.

Gram-negative bacteria are most found is E.coli. Data suggests that about 90% of urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.


Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity has become a major health problem that continues to evolve. In America the incidence of overweight in children and adults increased to three times in the past three decades and the increase has reached an alarming point. Obesity in children and adolescents is also increasing. Approximately 1 in 3 children are overweight or at risk of overweight. Children who are obese in childhood have a 75% chance to be obese as well as adults later.

Recently declared obesity as a chronic disease with multi factor causes. Obesity is not caused by a single cause but rather by the complex relationship between genetic factors, physiological, metabolic, psychological, socio-economic, lifestyle and cultural factors.

Obesity raises a variety of effects on growth and psychosocial development of children. Causes of psychosocial disorders in obese children may be caused by internal and external factors.

Internal factors derived from the child itself is a desire to attenuate the body and felt different from other children, causing children with obesity have low self-esteem and easily depressed. Due to obesity, the penis looks small because it was buried in fatty tissue (buried penis), it can cause embarrassment because they feel different from other children. Body odor or aroma is less pleasant because of the laceration in the area of ​​skin folds, causing a child to withdraw from the vicinity.

External factors from the environment to the stigma on obese children as children who are lazy, stupid and slow. Could also be due to the inability to carry out a task / activity mainly due to the existence of barriers sports movement by obesity.

Children with obesity are generally rarely played with their peers. Tends to be alone, not included in the game, as well as awkward or withdraw from social contact. So with such conditions verbal creativity in obese children is questionable. This is due to a lack of confidence, negative self-perception and low self-esteem because they feel different from other children so that the subject of ridicule of his friends.

Psychological problems associated with obesity in children include a negative self-esteem, isolated from interactions with peers, depression, anxiety, feelings of chronic rejection and creativity tends to decline. Excessive obesity in children will usually lead to activity and creativity of children will decrease, and then with overweight children to become lazy.


Teaching and Learning Activities

Education is primarily a process to assist people in developing themselves so that they can cope with change and problems. One important thing that contributed to the success of education is teaching and learning activities in schools. Students, teachers, and infrastructure are a component in learning. Students as subjects and teachers as facilitators in learning. Student activity is very influential in the learning process. Understanding of the students is also very important for teachers so that teachers can create the right circumstances in a teaching-learning process and provide the optimal effect for students to achieve good learning results.

Learning system must be more innovative and attractive so as to enhance students' understanding of a concept to the maximum towards a learning creativity.

Learning that can be used is the inquiry approach (discovery). This approach is based on mental processes in which students assimilate the concepts and principles. Mental processes, such as observing, classifying, making allegations, explain, measure, draw conclusions and so on. One type of inquiry approach is a guided inquiry approach. In this approach, the teacher provides guidance or instruction to students, most of the planning is made of teachers, and students do not formulate the problem or problems.

Practicum is one way to find a concept and principle in which students actively experience and prove to them self about what is being learned. In this way students are totally involved in doing yourself, analyze, demonstrate and draw your own conclusions about the object, situation or process anything. When the guided inquiry method is carried out through the practicum students will be able to actively assimilate the concepts and principles so that students are able to understand the lesson. Guidance and instruction from the teacher will facilitate students in the process of discovery of concepts and principles in the subject matter. Thus the quality of the learning process and student achievement will increase.

The responsibility for education of children

As we all know that the responsibility for education of children is concentrated on three (3) organizations that are family, school and community as an educational center. If we look at the three institutions responsible for education, the school actually is the second element in the educational institutions. But recently the school into a major institution responsible for education.

Education should be implemented at an early age. If children at an early age was trained to do something good, then after they've grown up and grown accustomed to feeling happy to do it and not perceived as a burden. Carry out the virtues and noble manners require different training and awareness in order to get to do it with ease. Truly a small train and educate children from an early age to do well is an effort to lay the foundation of virtue, was eventually becomes a habit.

Family environment should be the lead agency role in educational change. Lack of available time at home and hanging out with the entire family is as busy as a result of routine job faced by family members, especially fathers and mothers, who in turn controls and attention to their children is not fulfilled. Given these problems, many parents who give education to children are formal institutions such as schools. Thus, education is the responsibility of the formal educational institutions (schools).

One of the responsibilities borne by the school in educating their child's education is a noble spirit away from crime and disgrace. A child requires a deepening of values ​​and norms and morals into their souls. Moral education for children is important because children are individuals who are still in progress towards the optimum, so the child can be formed from an early age. Therefore the school as educational institutions is very dominant in giving attention to the moral education of children, because good and bad morals of children indirectly affected by the education conducted at schools.

Today there are many behaviors which concern undertaken by children, such as stealing, lying, and daring to both parents. The decline of politeness and other behaviors that demonstrate the low morals. Then it's time as an educational institution (school) to always be aware of his responsibility as educators to pay attention to their students, especially in moral education in order to achieve a noble person.

E-Learning Education

Education in the future is expected to be flexible, open, and can be accessed by anyone who requires a factor indiscriminate sex, age, and previous educational experience. The education process will be determined by the network information that enables interaction and collaboration. Development of Information Technology, particularly in education, can connect between the students with the professor; students see the value, see the schedule of lectures, send the tasks assigned Lecturer and so on the internet online.

One of the learning methods possible to use the internet facility is e-Learning. In the United States (U.S.), e-Learning has been used in nearly 90% of the university which has over 10,000 students. Internet use increased by about 100% per year contributed to considerable progress in the use of e-Learning.

Learning e-Portfolio can be used to show a clear outcome and output process of learning and student learning, present the framework for the assessment of academic progress (achievement of study) and to show continuous skills development. In the process of education, e-Portfolio has a function: the process of recognition, recording, validation, reflection, exposure/presenting, planning, and assessment. Program assessment is an activity designed to determine the level of student achievement in reaching the goal of learning as well as to provide feedback in an effort to help students achieve learning objectives.

E-Portfolio is used as a means to measure the output (learning outcome) and outcome (impact study) that can be used to measure the performance of the institution as a form of education. Assessment is a tool to make improvements in the educational process but rather part and the end of an educational process as an assessment. Assessment values ​​are very effective and practical education begins by making learning objectives that should be given to students and self-assessment will help students to achieve learning goals.


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Part II

Transmission and Prevention in HIV / AIDS

HIV can be found in all body fluids, but which proved transmission is through blood, semen and cervical fluid / vaginal only. Modes of transmission HIV / AIDS may be through:

1. Sexual intercourse
2. Receipt of blood or blood products via blood transfusion

3. The use of syringes, medical devices and equipment other puncture (tattoos, piercing, acupuncture, etc...) unsterile
4. Acceptance of organ, tissue or semen

5. Transmission to the fetus from pregnant mother.
6. Until now there has been no evidence of transmission can be through: insect bites, beverages, food or casual contact in families, schools, swimming pools, public toilets or work with people with AIDS

By knowing the ways of HIV transmission, it will be easier to do prevention measures. Easily, HIV prevention can be done by ABCDE formula is:
A = Abstinence, not having sex or abstain sex before marriage
B = Being Faithful, faithful to one partner, or avoiding multiple sexual partners sexual
C = Condom, for those who are at risk is recommended always to use condoms correctly during sexual intercourse
D = Drugs injection, do not use drugs (Drugs) injections with unsterilized needles or used interchangeably
E = Education, education and health education on matters related with HIV / AIDS

With the increasing cases of HIV / AIDS is necessary alacrity workers to provide medical assistance and services to patients with HIV / AIDS. On the other, with the advancement of science and technology in health, HIV / AIDS that had been are a progressive disease of the deadly shifted into a chronic disease that can be managed. Although not yet found a drug that can kill the HIV virus completely, with the discovery of antiretroviral drugs, people with HIV / AIDS could be increased life expectancy. This is certainly to be supported by the efforts of the care strong in order to achieve optimal quality of life.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Part III

Orphanage Care in HIV / AIDS

Orphanage care in HIV / AIDS is unique to each individual, influenced by individual characteristics, stage of development of symptoms that are experienced by people with HIV / AIDS, and public attitudes toward HIV / AIDS. The problems nursing which are commonly found in people with HIV / AIDS include:
1. The risk of infection (opportunistic infection) in connection with a reduction immune
2. Tiredness (fatigue) in connection with the process of HIV infection
3. Acute Pain / Chronic relation to the presence of neuropathy, cancer, infection
4. Nutritional imbalance; less than body requirements with respect to not appetite, nausea, vomiting, pain swallowing, pain in mouth, diarrhea
5. Impaired skin integrity related to infection, cancer
6. Social isolation in relation to fear the spread of the virus, stigma
7. The risk of low self esteem in relation to changes in body appearance
8. Changes in sexual patterns with respect to the risk of spreading disease
9. Anxious in connection with the lack of knowledge, lack of family support / social
10. Defense responses (coping mechanism) is not effective with respect to chronic progressive disease
11. Deep sorrow in connection with the decline in immune function or the perception of death that threatens

To reduce the risk of getting infections, people living with HIV are encouraged to always maintain personal hygiene, maintaining safety and cleanliness food and beverages, keeping the environment clean, avoid behaviors that at risk of contracting or transmitting diseases, and perform treatment on a regular basis.

Fatigue can arise from infections, medications, anemia, dehydration, depression, or due to poor nutrition. Fatigue can be managed in a way to intersperse activities resting, prepare the schedule of activities / jobs that require a lot of power to do more energetic conditions at the time. Diet foods high in calories, high in protein and vitamin and mineral supplements.

As long as HIV infection progresses, patients generally stay in the house. Hospitalization may be required for certain times during the episode acute. As the disease continues to develop, patients need a serious treatment of the family or community nurses (community nurses). The nurse will help to make physical care, building a therapeutic relationship, and coordinate care with other health team members. Various support facilities in the community should be recognizable. When the patient is in terminal phase, the treatment provides support comfort and emotional support for patients and families is needed.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Part I

AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a disease that caused by the virus HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) which is characterized by symptoms the immune system. AIDS can be said of a collection of signs / symptoms or a syndrome that occurs due to a decrease in acquired immune power or infected, not inborn. AIDS patients vulnerable to infection opportunistic (infection caused by germs on the state of the immune system normal body does not happen) and cancer and usually ends with death.

The cause of AIDS is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which is a type of virus RNA is classified as retroviruses. The main basis of HIV infection disease was reduced type of white blood cells (T helper lymphocytes) that contain marker CD4 (Cells T4). Lymphocytes T4 has a central and primary cells that are involved directly or indirectly in inducing many immune functions, so abnormalities functional on T4 cells will lead to signs of immune response disorders. Once HIV enters a person's body, HIV can be obtained from lifosit mainly lymphocytes T4, monocytes, glial cells, macrophages and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients.

The presence of HIV in a person's body can not be seen from the outside appearance. Person who are infected will not show any symptoms for long periods of relative long (± 7-10 years) after contracting HIV. This period is called the latent period. Person still healthy and able to work as usual even though his blood contained HIV. This is a worrying period for public health, because people unconsciously infected can transmit the virus to others. Of the latent then enter the state of AIDS with the following symptoms:

The main signs (major) include weight loss of more than 10% in - short time, prolonged fever for more than a month, and chronic diarrhea for more than a month

Signs of an additional (minor) include prolonged coughing for more than one months, skin disorders (itching), herpes simplex (painful blisters and skin) that widening and getting worse, fungal infections of the mouth and esophagus, and swollen lymph glands throughout the body, which is palpable beneath the ear, neck, armpits, and groin.


The ability to read at an Early Age

The ability to read is the basis for mastering a variety of fields of study. If school-age children at the beginning did not immediately have the ability to read, then the child will experience many difficulties in studying the various fields of study at the next class.

Children must learn to read to reading to learn. Reading is an appropriate means to promote a life-long learning. By teaching the children how to read it means giving the child a future that gives a technique how to explore the "world" which was selected and provides an opportunity to get a purpose in life.

Reading lessons in children must consider many factors, including adjustments to the ability of the child, the child's interest and the factors that influence the process of learning to read. Many teachers and parents who are less and not even realize the importance of these factors, especially the effective methods to teach reading to children age kindergarten. Giving the wrong method can lead to disruption of the psychological development of children. Teaching in Kindergarten should pay attention to aspects of cognition, motivation, values ​​and development of sensing students.

The material is taught in kindergarten should be more emphasized the significance of learning for children, it means learning activities undertaken by children is the real activity of life which enables children to carry out activities according to their talents, interests and abilities. Children are not forced to do activities the same education regardless of the uniqueness of every individual.

The best time to learn to read at about the same time with the children learn to speak, where the sensitivity occurs in a lifespan of three (3) to five (5) years, when the child's ability to learn to read being on top. This is due to the psychological fact almost no difference between reading the words spoken by learning to read words written, the difference is, the words of greeting to the ears of children through sound waves while the form of written words via light waves .

One of the ways to learn is with images that are used with the aim of making children interested in learning to be given, because children are usually easily attracted by a variety of images.

Motion Coordination Skills for Cerebral Palsy Child

Cerebral Palsy Children is a disorder of movement and posture caused by damage to brain regions that control motor function. From the definition above may be taken of a child's understanding of cerebral palsy, they were impaired (impairment) is characterized by the presence of disturbances in motor system of muscle movement or posture that can also be accompanied by the condition of mental retardation or other neurological symptoms, all of which is due control muscle function due to abnormalities in the brain area or brain dysfunction due to prior development of the perfect.

Cerebral palsy child's motor skills are very limited, therefore, should be studied systematically in order motion capability can be improved. To develop the motor skills of cerebral palsy children requires time and patience. Exercises should be done regularly and repeatedly, on a regular schedule, so that success can be immediately felt.

The main component of independence for the child's Cerebral Palsy is the ability to coordinate movement of his limbs. The problems faced by Cerebral palsy children is difficulty in conditioning the motion of the body, resulting in disruption experienced by them on members of the motion. As for the disruption they experienced them, muscle spasms either whole or in part.

The presence of inuvoluntary movements are movements that are not intentional and can not be prevented, so it felt very disturbing. The deficiency of balance of the body that causes incorrect or false allegations such as the time step size. Small movements such as continuous vibration on the hands, head or eyes. The presence of muscles in the body is always stiff. The disorder causes movement disorders in children activities such as eating movement, stepping movements, the movement of writing and other activities.

To overcome the above Cerebral Palsy child needs to exercise motor skills so that they have a matching motor coordination or harmony so that they can take care of themselves which is a basic function in everyday life by developing a customized motor coordination skills with ability. This can improve them a better life for themselves and for their families and their environment.

Exercise motor coordination skills in cerebral palsy child requires a special form of motion, and specific principles. Thus, in practice these motor coordination skills using basic dance form of motion on the grounds that the dance is a branch of the art of dance in general is very well-liked


Understanding of Gender

Biologically there is a difference between men and women, both in terms of chromosomes, hormonal, physical, and chemical makeup. These biological differences are referred to as the gender of men and women. While the difference psychologically between men and women termed gender roles.

Understanding of gender in general associated with biological sex, gender or mean as: sexual classification; sex: the male and female gender. Stating the female sex and men as form the basis of biological classification system is called gender.

Traditionally, most of the traits and behaviors that are associated with so-called gender biological sex. However, gender is now viewed more as a 'constructed by social reality' as women and men. Thus, gender not only refers to biological sex, but also descriptions of psychological, social and cultural as well as the specific characteristics associated with the biological categories of female and male.

In the area of ​​psychology is more use of the term gender to gender in studying the personal behavior of women and men in a social context. Separating between sex and gender, with the understanding that gender is a social construction. Defined as biological gender are differences in genetic.

As with other mammalian species that have two biological forms of the women and men, as well as the people in it consists of women and men laiki, human babies said to be women and men at the time of his birth, based on the genitals they have.

It is important to distinguish between sex and gender (although it is often used to both simultaneously), due to: equating sex and gender can redirect the belief that differences in behavioral traits and the concept of sex and gender helps us to analyze the complex relationship between sex and gender in our lives. Everyone has their own roles in society. Among these roles, including roles based on sex, so-called gender roles. Since a person is born, the environment has started to prepare a child for behavior deemed appropriate environment for women and men

Through a variety of definitions can be concluded that gender roles are a series of personality attributes that include attitudes and behavior patterns that are considered suitable for men or groups possess, characteristics associated with feminine and masculine in accordance with the expected community.

Interior Design

Office is one of the facilities is very important for a company, the office is a place for all employees and the organization's activities in the economy. But the current office is not always seen as a place where people work, a place where there are activities associated with a job. Because, right now the office can be regarded as a second home for most people, especially someone who lived in big city.

Some even most of their time is spent in an office. So now an office building and interior in a company should be able to create and provide a comfortable atmosphere for its users who indulge in it.

A comfortable office in all aspects may indirectly support the better performance for employees and the directors, so it is not possible in an office interior design has a considerable influence on the growth of a company.

Office interior design is now a matter of sufficient concern. Rapid developments in all aspects of human life member having a significant impact in the world of interior design. Especially the companies that selling a product. Every company should be competing to provide a quality product, so their products can be acceptable to the market.
An interior design can be said to succeed if it forms an interior space can reflect or projecting a function of space and were able to present aesthetic.


Menopause is when a woman's menstrual periods stopped as a result of reduced production of estrogen. When menopause begins women will experience changes both physically and psychologically. The changes at menopause will encourage a woman to adapt to the psychosocial environment.

Women workers and female workers is not different in terms of its role, where women play a role doubles as workers and as housewives. When entering the menopause, a woman will experience upheavals or changes that include physical and psychological aspects that can affect various aspects of the life of the woman. Discomfort due to physical changes may include stiffness and pains suddenly all over his body, hot flush, fatigue, headache, palpitations.

In addition, a prominent psychological symptoms when menopause is irritability, sleeplessness, depression, nervousness, loneliness, anxiety and depression. The symptoms are unpleasant menopausal women experience due to physical and psychological changes, greatly affect their quality of life. Enough knowledge will help them understand and prepare himself through menopause better.

The number of grievances felt at the time of menopause women both physically and psychologically should not be taken lightly because it can lead to high stress. However, menopausal women will experience emotional stability if they are adaptable to changes that occur during menopause.

Menopausal women not as a worker or a housewife will have the satisfaction its own because it can lead children into adulthood until a family. However, as a housewife menopausal women not workers may experience stress sourced from the family, because family can be a source of stress due to events related to family members.

Menopausal women workers have a dual role as a wife, housewife, running errands reproduction, community members, and at the same time breadwinner, in perform that role is often stressed. As the breadwinner, working menopausal women often experience the stress that comes from the work environment. Stress can occur for several reasons, among others, work demands, job responsibilities, physical work environment, poor human relationships, lack of knowledge and improvement of career and feeling less safe in the workplace.


Among medical experts recognized two types of abortion (miscarriage) that is spontaneous abortion and artificial abortion.

Spontaneous abortion is a natural mechanism that causes the interruption of the pregnancy before the age of 28 weeks. The cause may be due to the illness of the mother or other causes which are generally associated with abnormalities in the reproductive system.

As with the abortion, artificial abortion with this type of a deliberate effort to terminate the pregnancy before the age of 28 weeks, where fetuses (products of conception) issued an unbiased survive in the outside world.

Artificial abortion, if viewed from the aspect of law can be classified into two categories namely:

1. Abortion made ​​legal
Which abortions are performed according to the terms and in ways that are justified by the law. Popular also called provocatus therapcutius abortion, because the very basic reason for doing so is to save the life / cure of the mother.

2. Abortion made ​​illegal
Namely abortion whose purpose other than to save / heal the mother, performed by staff who are incompetent and not qualified and the means justified by the law.

This type of abortion is often also called provocatus criminalis abortion, because it contains elements of criminal or crime.


Female Entrepreneurship

Many sectors of life where women are free to work and compete with men, may be mentioned entrepreneurship (entrepreneurship), as one of choice for a woman to prove herself that she could try is to create small businesses. Already very many women who become entrepreneurs from the very micro level, small, medium, and large, with a view to helping her husband meet the economic needs of families, to factor independence, or as a realization of the knowledge gained while undergoing education.

An entrepreneur is not motivated primarily by financial incentives, but by a desire to escape from an environment that is not appropriate, in addition to finding new meaning to his life.

Female entrepreneurial motivation factor is that The Feminist Refugee women who felt he had to get discriminatory treatment compared to men, both in the educational system, corporate environment, as well as in society, will try to prove that he was able to establish his own company.
While other motivating factor is The Housewife refugee ie the housewives who were initially busy raising children and the household will try to help her husband financially because of the needs of children are growing up increasingly large.

Women should choose a business that is preferred to the risk of loss can be reduced. This is important because in their business so completely to understand that they do business.

Development of Business Ideas for women

Women in starting a business should do 3 (three) terms, that is originated from a small scale, willing to learn marketing, and change the mentality to be socially active. On the other hand, the risk in managing a business is time-consuming. Therefore, skill in dividing time between business and family affairs should be maintained properly. Regarding the location of the business, it is suggested should not be far from their homes so the timing was not exhausted outside and women should choose the type of business that does away with the preferred activity.

Women tend to choose a hobby business in accordance with women entrepreneurs to start a business. Beauty salon business is one of the alternatives preferred by women, because women generally like to take care of their hair and bodies. This phenomenon is evidenced by the number of existing salons in major streets and in alleys.

Beauty salon business is a service business that provides services of a woman or man's hair cut, makeup and a place to take care of themselves. Beauty salon is one of the businesses in the informal form. The informal sector is very helpful community interest in providing employment to self employment or a safety belt for workers entering the labor market, in addition to providing the needs of lower middle class society.

In general, the informal sector is often considered more able to survive than other business sectors. This can occur because of the informal sector is relatively more independent or not depends on the other hand, especially in relation to capital and better able to adapt its business

The Biodiesel

Fuel oil is a source of energy with the largest current consumption when compared to other energy sources. But the current world fuel crisis. As a result of the depletion of oil and gas supplies are necessary to develop alternative fuels. Alternative fuel is a renewable fuel. Fuel source is derived from green plants that can produce hydrocarbons directly. We can choose a new plant source of high potential to be used as liquid fuels and chemicals.

Biodiesel is also a solution to face the scarcity of fossil energy in the future. Biodiesel is generally a diesel engine fuel made from renewable materials, or specifically a fuel for diesel engines consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel can be made from vegetable oils, animal oils or from used cooking oil or recycled. Biodiesel raw materials are potentially large in Indonesia for now is crude palm oil (Crude Palm Oil CPO), palm oil, jatropha oil.

Biodiesel is expected to replace diesel as a base for diesel engines. The advantages of biodiesel is higher cetane number than diesel fuel cetane number that exist today, the flue gas from burning biodiesel is more environmentally friendly, better engine acceleration, and lighter pull.

Development and use of alternative fuels to be one option to meet the demand for fuel is increasing. In addition, alternative fuels have a positive impact such as exhaust emissions are environmentally friendly (especially reducing greenhouse gases), as well as the development of the agricultural industry


Determining a Decision

The decision is defined as the selection of an act of two or more alternative choice. The decision to purchase by a consumer of a product begins with the awareness of the needs of buyers will be any problems. 
Consumers realize that there is a difference between the actual conditions with the desired conditions. This has led to active consumers looking for more information to find products that interest. After obtaining and evaluating information before a consumer will decide to buy a product that fits their wants and needs.

Before the decision was taken, someone will be faced with a decision process consisting of problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase and after-purchase customer.

Product, price, place and promotion are an important thing that has always considered by consumers in the decision to buy a product. Typically a consumer will find out in advance about the product to buy. How is the quality of the product, whether the brand has been known or not, or how the packaging or the shape of the product, whether it is in accordance with consumer tastes or not. 
After that the consumer will consider the price of the product, whether the price offered is in conformity with the satisfaction to be gained from buying the product. Places are also taken into consideration in deciding on a purchase consumers. Typically consumers will love the comfortable places and their locations easy to find. 
Promotion is a means for manufacturers to introduce to consumers the benefits of its products and also as a means of information for consumers. Consumer purchasing decisions will usually happen to buy the most preferred brand, but the purchase decision could be influenced by several factors including the quality of the product, the price is more expensive or cheaper than competitors' products, the brand is well known by the public as well as promotion performed by the company so that consumers know and understand the benefits of these products.