Tuberculosis Disease

Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. WHO estimates that tuberculosis causes 6% of all deaths worldwide, the most common cause of death from a single bacterial infection and in people with low socioeconomic.

Tuberculosis can involve the lymph nodes is the most common form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions showed an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Therefore, the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis is a challenge. Criteria for clinical and cytological picture like tubercles that are used to diagnose a sensitivity and specificity are unsatisfactory and can lead to excessive diagnoses, especially in countries with high endemic rates of tuberculosis.

Until now the diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on acid-fast bacilli encountered with traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a culture obtained from biopsy specimens or aspirates taken by fine needle aspiration. Examination of culture that takes a long time began to be abandoned as a routine diagnostic examination, sensitivity and low specificity and often give negative results.

Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique commonly used to diagnose extra pulmonary tuberculosis, such as the lymph nodes, bone, and cold abscess in any location on the body and is a technique that is simple, sensitive and diagnosis can be obtained on the same day. Lymphadenopathy is a form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. These cases often come to practice almost every day cytologists.

In pathology cytological picture of cytological preparations that had been held for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was encountered granulomatous inflammatory cells form cells classic epithelioid histiocytes on a background of lymphocytes, multi nucleated giant cells of the type of foreign body or Langhans type giant cells and can or showed no necrosis.

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