Early Prevention of Malnutrition

Today has been a lot of problems of nutritional deficiency can be overcome. Nevertheless there are still some countries which still is a problem and require greater attention, namely the problem of micro nutrient deficiency, such as iodine, iron and vitamin A.

Malnutrition at an early age have an adverse impact on adulthood that is manifested in physical form are smaller with lower productivity levels. The impact of malnutrition at an early age becomes increasingly important when consider analysis of existing data. The results strengthen the hypothesis that analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition at an early age to the onset of degenerative diseases in adulthood that is precisely the productive age.

Malnutrition in childhood is always associated with a deficiency of specific vitamins and minerals, which are associated with certain micro nutrients. In recent years increasing attention to the consequences of micro nutrient deficiencies, starting from the increased risk of infectious disease and death that can inhibit growth and mental development.

The consequences of micro nutrient deficiencies during childhood are very dangerous. Iron deficiency can impair mental and motor development of children and also cause anemia. Zinc deficiency can also impair growth and increase the risk of diarrhea and respiratory infections. Given the high prevalence of deficiencies of certain nutrients as well as negative effects, the supplementation of nutrients such as iron and zinc in children will be very useful, especially because it is practically difficult to raise adequate nutrients from the diet of babies around for this. Some of the foods given to infants and children tend to inhibit iron absorption such as phytic acid and zinc contained in grains and dairy cows that can reduce the absorption of iron and zinc.

Specific micro nutrient supplementation always have obstacles and barriers. Nutritional needs of children aged 6-24 months increased with the rapid growth of the child. While breast's milk and eating a poor child can not meet those needs. It would require an alternative to meet the shortfall, that is by way of supplementation of certain substances that can help growing children.

In several countries have done some research on Zn and Fe supplementation. Several studies showed that zinc supplementation can reduce infectious diseases (diarrhea and cough) and increase the growth of children.


The Benefits of Execlusive Breastfeeding for Infants

1. As a nutrition

Each mammals are naturally prepared to have a pair or more of the milk glands. At birth the milk glands to produce milk for baby food. Breastfed infants gained during the process of breastfeeding will meet the nutritional needs of infants so as to support cognitive development.

2. Increase endurance baby

Infants who are still in the womb, are naturally going to get Immunoglobulin (immune substances) from the mother through the umbilical cord. However, levels of this substance will rapidly decline after the baby is born. The new baby's body makes enough antibodies to reach protective levels at aged 9 to 12 months. At levels of innate immune substances decreased, while that formed by the baby's body then there is not enough substance in the baby gap. The gap will disappear or be reduced if infants were given breast milk, because milk is a fluid that contains antibodies that will protect infants from infectious diseases, viruses, parasites, and fungi.

3. Improve intelligence

Development of intelligence is closely related to brain growth. There are two factors that affect intelligence. Genetic factors and environmental factors.

a. Genetic or congenital factors determine the potential genetic or congenital inherited by parents. This factor can not be manipulated or engineered.

b. Environmental factors are the factors that determine whether genetic factors will be achieved at an optimum. This factor has many aspects and can be manipulated or engineered.

In addition to the above major factors that affect brain growth of infants and children is a nutrient or nutrients it receives. The most rapid brain development
occurred at the age of 0-2 or 3 years, in which brain volume will reach 80%.

Therefore, breastfeeding is needed at this time. Although the brain has undergone rapid development during this period, it does not mean that the development of the brain just stop there. The volume of the brain will continue to grow until the age of 12 years. The best nutrition for babies is breast milk for brain development in which are LC-PU FA. Two types of LC-PU FA that is needed for the development of the infant brain is DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) as one type of omega-3 fatty acids and AA (arachidonic acid) as one type of omega-6 fatty acids.

4. Increase compassion

Babies are often located in the arms of his mother for breastfeeding mothers will feel the love. He will also feel safe and secure, especially as it still can hear the heartbeat of his mother he has known since the womb. Feeling protected and cherished is the basis for emotional development of infants and establish a confident personality and a good spiritual foundation.

5. Basic personality development of children

Breastfed babies will strengthen the mother-child bond. Sense of security in the baby will grow when he was in his mother's arms. He enjoys a touch of soft leather and hear the heart of the mother as she had known during the pregnancy. These conditions are the basis for the development of warm emotions in children. Through the process of breastfeeding, the child will learn to share and give love to those around him.


The Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding

The basis of quality human capital formation begins as a baby in the womb, along with breastfeeding (breast milk) from an early age about 30 minutes after birth, especially exclusive breastfeeding is giving only breast milk to babies from birth to age 6 months or at least until age 4 the month.

Breast milk is an ideal source of nutrition with a balanced composition and tailored to the needs of the growing baby. For infants, breast milk is the most perfect food, both quality and quantity. Besides breast milk also contains immune substances which are very important in preventing the onset of various diseases, are also able to increase the inner intimacy between mother and child who desperately needed in the future.

Breast milk is unique to infants because of their chemical composition, has a specific biological value, and has the specific substance. The third trait is exactly what distinguishes breast milk with formula milk. The composition of breast milk vary with the composition of cow's milk, because dairy cows adapted to the growth rate of calves and milk is adjusted to the rate of growth of a human child. Breast milk contains more than 200 constituents, such as albumen, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, growth factors, hormones, enzymes, antibodies and white blood cells.

With proper management of breastfeeding, breast milk foods will be sufficient to meet the needs of a single normal infants until the age of 6 months. According to research, children who are not breastfed have IQ (Intellectual Quotient) over seven to eight points lower than children who were breastfed exclusively.

Exclusive breastfeeding is breastfeeding the baby for 6 months without any other liquid materials such as infant formula, sugar water, honey water, or plain water without any food additives are also other woods such as bananas, biscuits or milk porridge. According to the Institute of medicine, defined as consumption of exclusively breastfed babies will breast milk without supplements of any kind (water, juice, food in any form) except for vitamins, minerals, and treatment.

Exclusive breastfeeding is breastfeeding as early as possible after delivery, provided no timetable and no other food was given, although only water until the baby is six months old.


The Benefits of Exclusive Breastfeeding for Mother

1. Reducing bleeding after childbirth

If the baby is breastfed immediately after birth so the likelihood of bleeding after delivery will be reduced. When the baby is sucking the mother's nipple, pituitary gland will be stimulated to increase production of the hormone oxytocin to stimulate contractions of the muscles in the breast milk so the milk line radiated out. This is because in breastfeeding mothers increased levels of oxytocin which is useful for blood vessel constriction or closure more quickly so that the bleeding will stop.

2. Reduce the occurrence of anemia

When postpartum hemorrhage did not occur or stop sooner, then the risk of blood deficiency causing anemia in the mother will be reduced. Cessation of bleeding after delivery will reduce the risk of death and blood deficiency causing anemia in the mother.

3. Spacing pregnancies

Other benefits of exclusive breastfeeding is a natural contraceptive that can prevent pregnancy. The possibility to prevent pregnancy can reach 99%. However, there are three conditions that must be met, the baby has not fed the other, not yet six months old baby, and mother has not menstruate.

4. Shrink the uterus

Oxytocin levels increased breastfeeding mothers will greatly help the uterus return to pre-pregnancy size. This reduction process will be faster compared with mothers who did not breastfeed. With breastfeeding, maternal fat reserves that is prepared as an energy source will be used during pregnancy as the milk-forming energy. As a result, the fat reserves will shrink, so the mother's weight loss will happen more quickly.

5. More quickly slim back

Breastfeeding requires then the body will take energy from the fat accumulated during pregnancy. Thus, mothers who breast-feeding weight will quickly return to pre-pregnancy weight.

6. Reduce the likelihood of suffering from cancer

In women who are exclusively breastfed, the possibility of suffering from breast and ovarian cancer is reduced. Some research suggests that breastfeeding would reduce the likelihood of breast cancer. In general, if all women can continue to breastfeed until the baby is 2 years old or older, suspected breast cancer incidence was reduced to 25%.

7. More economical / cheap

With the benefits of breastfeeding means saving expenditures for infant formula, breastfeeding supplies, preparation of formula milk to drink. In addition, breast-feeding also saves baby's expenses for medical treatment, such as the cost of physician services, the cost of purchasing drugs, perhaps even the cost of hospital care.

8. No hassle and time saving

Milk may be given to the baby without having to prepare or cook water, also without having to wash bottles, and without waiting for the milk is not too hot. Bottle feeding would be more troublesome, especially at night.

9. Portable and practical

Easy to carry anywhere (portable), so the move does not need to carry a variety of tools to drink formula and not have to carry an electric appliance to cook or warm milk. Milk can be given anywhere and anytime in a state ready to eat / drink, as well as the temperature is always right.

10. Provide satisfaction for the mother

Mothers who had exclusive breastfeeding will feel a deep satisfaction and happiness. Sense of pride and happiness because it can give something of himself for the sake of her baby (breastfeeding) will strengthen the inner relationship between mother and baby.


The Myths of Exclusive Breastfeeding

Many myths about breastfeeding makes the mother became less confident to breastfeed their babies. Myth was not reasonable and makes the mother becomes chose to stop breastfeeding and formula feeding choose as an alternative.

These myths were:

1. Breastfeeding causes difficulty losing weight

The data prove that breastfeeding can help mothers lose weight more quickly than those not breast feed exclusively. For the feeding of fat deposits that occur during pregnancy will be used in the process of breastfeeding, while women who do not breastfeed will be difficult to eliminate fat deposits that specifically prepared the body for breastfeeding.

2. Breastfeeding change the shape of the breast

Actually the change of the breasts is a pregnancy, not breastfeeding. Pregnancy causes the release of hormones and cause the formation of water that fills the breast milk. Breast that had been occupied by the milk, would be differently shaped breasts that have never filled milk. Magnitude of change in breast shape depends on the derivative of (hereditary), age, and also by the weight gain during pregnancy.

3. Breast milk has not come out on the first days that need to be supplemented with formula. 
On the first day the baby is actually not require liquid or food, so it has not required formula feeding breast milk or other liquid prior to exit (prenatal liquid feeding). Babies age of 30 minutes should be given breast milk, not for nutrition but to learn to breastfeed or get used to suck the nipple, and also to prepare mothers to produce milk. Movement reflex to suck in the newborn will peak at age 20 - 30 minutes, so that in case of late lactation, this reflex will be reduced and no longer stronger until several hours later.

Giving prenatal feeding was not really necessary, because it would harm the mother, the mother's breast milk will be slower formation because the baby is not strong enough to suck and hurt the baby because the baby will not receive colostrum. If your baby gets little or no colostrum, will more often suffer from diarrhea or other illnesses, especially if the infant formula or other liquids contaminated prenatal. Besides, if it is given by the dot prenatal fluids, likely the baby will have difficulty taking on the nipple.

4. Working mothers not to breast feed exclusively

At a working mother, another way to still be able to breastfeed her baby exclusively on breast milk is by giving to the baby during the mother's work. During the mothers in the workplace, better breast milk milked a minimum of 2 x 15 minutes. Expressing breast milk should only be using your fingers, do not use a trumpet-shaped pump. Dairy milk stand 6-8 hours in the air outside, 24 hours in a flask containing ice cubes, 48 ​​hours in the refrigerator, and 3 months when in the freezer. With the help of "Mother Friendly Workplace", which allows an employee workplace breastfeeding exclusively, the success of working mothers for exclusive breastfeeding will become even greater.

5. Small breasts do not produce enough milk

Large or small breast form does not determine much or at least milk production, because only large breasts contain more fatty tissue than small breasts. While breast milk is formed by forming glandular breast tissue (alveoli) and not fat tissue.

6. The first breast milk should be thrown out because of gross

Milk that comes out on day 1 to day 5 and day-to-7 is called colostrum. This yellowish clear fluid containing albumen, or high levels of protein, anti-infective agents, or immune substances (immunoglobulins), in levels higher than in mature milk, as it also contains lactose, or carbohydrate and fat low levels of so easily digested.
The volume of colostrum varies between 10 cc to 100 cc per day. This low volume provides a minimal load for the kidneys of immature infants. The main task of colostrum is to protect infants against infectious diseases other than as a nutrient.

7. Due to drink a lot, not enough can be breastfed babies

Most babies are not due to a lack of breastfeeding mothers can not produce as much milk the baby takes, but it is a baby who can not suck as much as it needs. Milk production is stimulated by the emptying of the breast. Milk produced in accordance with the needs of the baby. During the baby still needs breast milk, as long as it's also the mother's breasts will still produce milk. If the baby stops breast-feeding by sucking, the mother's breasts will stop producing milk.


The Dangers of Head Injuries

The skull of the child is still elastic and have the ability to experience deformation, then the child's skull can absorb some of the energy of physical strength so that it can provide protection to the brain.

Head injury in children is a cause of death and disability are high. In children with severe head injury ± 50% had neurology symptoms Sesa and ± 2% -5% a severe disability leave. Because the incidence of head injuries in children is high enough, it is necessary to early diagnosis, care, treatment and observe the course of the disease is key in preventing head injuries.

Cause Head Injuries

Scalp, hair, bones, skulls and bones of the face protect the brain from injury. When the injury with moderate pressure linear fracture can occur, but when with high strength can cause a depression fracture. Brain and skull respond differently to acceleration and deceleration forces caused by the blow.

This type of injury that can cause damage to the head and brain tissue pressure varied from the lightest to traffic accidents. In children less than 4 years of head injuries are often caused by falls from a table, chairs, stairs, beds and others. Whereas in older children is often caused by riding a bike or traffic accidents.

Some things to keep in the observations in terms of head injury, are:

Vital functions
Elevated blood pressure accompanied by irregular respiration (Cushing's triad) indicate a high intracranial pressure. Rapid pulse accompanied by hypo tension and irregular breathing may be caused by disorders of the brain stem functions such as the occipital fracture.

Large needs to be checked and the reaction of the pupil. Retinal hemorrhages are often seen on Sub arachnoid hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage

Examined whether there is injury, hematoma or fracture. If there is pain or stiffness in the neck or Sub arachnoid hemorrhage

Ear and nose
Examined whether there is bleeding or cerebrospinal fluid out of nose / ear. Bleeding ears accompanied ecchymoses in the mastoid region (Battle's sign) may be due to fracture the cranial base.

The abdomen should also be checked against the possibility of intra-abdominal hemorrhage.


The Beginning of Science of Psychology

Seen historically can be argued that the oldest science is science philosophy. Other sciences that belong in philosophy, and philosophy is the only science at that time. Therefore, the sciences are incorporated in the philosophy will be influenced by the nature of philosophy, as does psychology.

Eventually, it was realized that philosophy as the only science is less able to meet human needs. It is recognized that matters relating to life is no longer enough simply explained by philosophy. At the time of psychology is still affiliated with the philosophy, rationale thinking in line with the development of science in the days before the Renaissance, namely, as the only science is less able to meet human needs.

Since the beginning of growth until the mid-19th century, more psychology developed by thinkers and philosophers, which underlies the lack of observations on concrete facts. They are more trusting of philosophical thinking and considerations of abstract and speculative. Theories that they create more based on personal experience and understanding at a glance. Therefore, it is understandable that the psychology of the time are less credible.

In a further development of psychology, felt the need to use other methods, to ensure objectivity as a science, ie using the "empirical". Empirical methods rely on: experience, observation, and experimental (empirical, empiria, which means the experience and observation), where this is in line with the findings of modern science that has been initiated in the Renaissance.

Renaissance (14-17 M) instill a strong influence for the development of modern science that shows several things, such as:
observations, the removal of all the things that are not included in the observed events, idealization, the preparation of a speculative theory of events such, forecasting, measurement and experiments to test the theory based on mathematical predictions.

With this development, the psychology that had been transformed into a psychological conception of the philosophic nature is empirical. In this case, even psychology eventually broke away from philosophy, psychology but still has a relationship with philosophy, even the sciences that have split off from philosophy was still there a relationship with philosophy, especially philosophy of science, especially on matters that concerning the nature, nature, and purpose of science.

Thus, it will be analyzed more about the actuality of philosophy of science in the development of science as the basis for his philosophy, particularly psychology. Both in terms of ontology, epistemology and its axiology.


Beware of Toxic materials

In today's modern industrial era increase in the use of chemicals is inevitable. Correspondingly the number of illnesses caused by these chemicals (also called the work of disease) also increases. This is especially true in industries where the means of salvation work of employees is inadequate.

Chemicals (toxic materials) that are used or produced by an industry can be a gas, solid, liquid does not evaporate, and volatile. These toxic materials can cause diseases of the skin, eyes, internal organs and digestive tract where the mouth is a part.

The oral cavity is the entrance of food into the body. If the oral cavity have a disease then by itself the amount of food that enters the body is reduced. This will cause a weakened physical condition resulting in employees working ability is reduced, so that industry production capacity is also reduced. The ability of an industry is measured by production capacity, then it is proper oral diseases in addition to other work because of illness should receive attention.

There is often an employee of an industry to come for treatment to dentists with symptoms of diseases of the oral cavity. Once treated, the disease was not cured or healed although relapse repeatedly. This can happen because as dentists forget to ask about the type of work the employee.

An oral cavity diseases that repeatedly suffered by the employee, the employee can occur due to continuous contact with a type of toxic material used in the industries in which the employee works. In this paper outlined some oral diseases caused by several types of toxic materials.


Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is one health problem, especially in infants and children, because of its chronic recidivist, so it can affect the quality of life of patients. Atopic dermatitis is most common in infants, but can also in children and adults. In most patients,

Atopic dermatitis is the first clinical manifestation of atopy, and many of them later will develop asthma and allergic rhinitis. Although genetic predisposition is one of the most important risk factor, but the increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis in industrialized countries suggests that environmental factors (exposure to microbes and nutrients) also have an important role.
The etiology of atopic dermatitis is not definitely known, but the atopic dermatitis is due to the interaction between genetic, environmental, skin barrier effects and immune system. The main symptom of atopic dermatitis is itching. Itching is a major problem during sleep, when conscious control of scratching is lost. For infants, atopic dermatitis can lead to unhappy circumstances and disrupted by irritation in the area of ​​skin accompanied by intense itching, scratching, until the occurrence of infection. All this can make the baby becomes fussy, feeding process to be disrupted, and ultimately will affect the growth process.

There is no total cure for atopic dermatitis, but the symptoms tend to diminish with the passage of age. Of all infants with atopic dermatitis, only a third of cases still continue to experience disease recurrence until childhood.

It is also found in those still suffering from atopic dermatitis in childhood, only about one-third of cases continued to adolescence. Most people experience periods of remission and periods of relapse of this disease for many years.

Factors that can cause persistent atopic dermatitis, among others, a history of family members who suffer from atopic dermatitis, the picture is more widespread disease in early life and the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis which occur simultaneously


The Prostitution

Prostitution is derived from the Latin "pro-stituere" / "pro-stauree", which means allowing ourselves commit adultery, do whoredom, fornication.

Prostitution is a "profession" of very old age, as old as human life itself. Namely in the form of uninhibited behavior without control and obscene, sexual appetite due to impingement with the opposite sex without knowing the limits of decency.

Apparently, in times past that prostitution has a connection with the worship of gods and certain religious ceremonies. Prostitution is not only tolerated, but also there are religious practices that lead to sin and lewd behavior is not different from prostitution.

Prostitution is always there in all civilized countries, since time immemorial. And always be a social problem, or becomes the object of legal affairs and
tradition. Further, with technological developments, industrial and human culture, prostitution is also co-evolved in various forms and levels. Prostitution is a form of social ills that are difficult to stop its spread.

In many countries prostitution is forbidden, even penalties. Also regarded as an act of contempt by all members of society. However, since the first human society so that the world would end later, "livelihood" This prostitution will remain there; difficult, even almost could not possibly be eradicated from the face of the earth, as long as there are still sex lust out of control will and conscience.

Harlots mostly in the cities, the traffic areas where tourists and cruise / spree, in which many visited the people who want to vacation, relax or travel. In general, in these places apply the principle of Tourism 4-S, namely Sea, Sun, Service and Sex. So to hold both men and women, organized prostitution practices; officially in brothels and specific locations, seeps or unofficially to hotels, guesthouses, lodgings and places of entertainment.


The Food Additives

Food additives are compounds (or a mixture of various compounds) are intentionally added to food and is involved in processing, packaging and / or storage, and is not a material (ingredient) key. Food additives and degradation products, usually remains in the food, but there are some who deliberately separated during processing.

The addition of Food Additives generally aims to

(1) improve the nutritional value of food,

(2) improve the sensory value of food,

(3) extend the shelf life (shelf life) food.

Additional ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids are usually added to improve and / or increase the nutritional value of a food. Many foods are enriched or fortified with vitamins to restore vitamins lost during processing, such as the addition of B vitamin to flour, or the addition of vitamin A into milk. Iron minerals added to enrich the nutritional value of food, mainly because of the iron in food generally has a bio availability low.

Color, odor, and consistency / texture of a food can be changed or reduced due to processing and storage. This can be improved by the addition of Food Additives as dyes, color-forming compounds, confirmation flavors, thickeners, stabilizers, and others. Formation of a distorted smell (off flavor) on fat products can be prevented by the addition of antioxidants. Texture of food can be improved by the addition of minerals, emulsifiers, thickeners and / or stabilizers such as monoglycerides, hydro colloid, and others.

Food processing lately have a tendency to produce food that is a long shelf life (durable) and easy to prepare (convenient). It is driven by factors such as material properties of fresh food that is generally easily damaged (perishable) and seasonal, as well as the lifestyle that want things easy and fast. To get such food, one of the businesses that use is to add a preservative, both to prevent the growth of microbes and to prevent the occurrence of chemical reactions that are not desired during processing and storage.

Food Additives is often used to produce food for special groups such as diabetics, patients who had undergone surgery, those who run a low-calorie diets or low-fat, and so on. Various Food Additives used for this purpose include artificial sweeteners, fat substitutes, thickeners, and others.


Mycobacterium Leprae causes Leprosy

Leprosy is an infectious disease that can cause various problems are very complex and extensive, which posed problems not only in terms of the medical course, but may extend up to the problems of economic, social, cultural, security, and resilience of social and psychological problems.

Problems of self in people with leprosy in general feel inferior, feel depressed mind, afraid of the family and the surrounding communities, so people tend to live alone, apathy (indifference), being dependent on others, loss of role in the community (isolated), loss of income or job, do not want the school (children), reluctant to seek treatment because of shame on the surrounding community. 
In addition to causing problems for sufferers, leprosy disease also poses a problem for families and communities around the lepers, namely the behavior of family and society that tends to exclude or remove leprosy sufferers, causing stress on the leper. Under these conditions it can slow the healing of lepers.

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by germs of leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) that attacks the nervous edge, skin and other tissue growth.

The cause of leprosy is leprosy germs, which are rod-shaped with a length of 1-8 mic, width 0.2 to 0.5 mic is usually scattered in groups and there is one-one, live in cells and are resistant to acid.

The period is divided self leprosy germs need a very long compared with other bacteria, ie 12-21 days. This is one of the causes of the long shoots of an average of 2-5 years.

The Transmission

Leprosy can be transmitted from the type of leprosy Multi bacillary (MB) to others by way of direct transmission. Exact mode of transmission is unknown, but most experts believe that leprosy can be transmitted through the respiratory system and skin.

Incidence of leprosy is not easy for a person, and not to be feared depends on several factors, among others:

1. Sources Transmission factors:
Source of infection is the type of MB leprosy patients. Patients with MB leprosy even this will not pass, if the medication regularly.

2. Leprosy Germs factors:
Leprosy germs can live outside the human body between 1-9 days depending on temperature or weather, and is known only leprosy germs are intact (solid) alone can lead to infection.

3. Body Endurance Factor:
Most humans are immune to leprosy (95%).


The World of Sex Workers

Talking about the world of sex workers, then we'll talk about a world that are multidimensional and multi sectoral. It is present, developing, less recommended, permitted until prohibited greatly depending on the context of the discourse that developed starting from the perspective of legal, political, economic, social and cultural rights to religious morality. More than those sexual problems are also related to psychological issues. Under what circumstances and how the world of sex workers were always present, from the hidden to overt.

Prostitution has old age, always there in people's lives for thousands of years ago. Sex and women are the two key words associated with prostitution. Sex is a human need that always exists in human beings and can appear suddenly. Sex can also mean an abstract expression of human love of beauty. While the woman is a type of God's creatures that are created as a symbol of beauty. Then the phenomenon that often occurs in the community is always synonymous with female sex.

But, unfortunately again, which is always a victim of sexual greed is also a woman. Due to the woman as a symbol of beauty, each a beautiful typically the target market that is always used as a commodity that is able to make money. That is why there are always women who gather in one place and trying to "sell" to anyone who requires "instant service". Men, although there who sell themselves, but rarely found collected in one place as well as women, or if there is any, generally the men are transformed into a woman so recognized that her beauty is easy to determine the desired rate.

If viewed from a broader view. We'll find out that actually made a sex worker is an activity that involves not only the women who provide sexual services to receive financial rewards. But this is a commercial activity that involves many parties. This trade network also stretches in a wide area, which is sometimes not only within one country but several countries.


Tuberculosis Disease

Tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. WHO estimates that tuberculosis causes 6% of all deaths worldwide, the most common cause of death from a single bacterial infection and in people with low socioeconomic.

Tuberculosis can involve the lymph nodes is the most common form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions showed an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Therefore, the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis is a challenge. Criteria for clinical and cytological picture like tubercles that are used to diagnose a sensitivity and specificity are unsatisfactory and can lead to excessive diagnoses, especially in countries with high endemic rates of tuberculosis.

Until now the diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on acid-fast bacilli encountered with traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a culture obtained from biopsy specimens or aspirates taken by fine needle aspiration. Examination of culture that takes a long time began to be abandoned as a routine diagnostic examination, sensitivity and low specificity and often give negative results.

Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique commonly used to diagnose extra pulmonary tuberculosis, such as the lymph nodes, bone, and cold abscess in any location on the body and is a technique that is simple, sensitive and diagnosis can be obtained on the same day. Lymphadenopathy is a form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. These cases often come to practice almost every day cytologists.

In pathology cytological picture of cytological preparations that had been held for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was encountered granulomatous inflammatory cells form cells classic epithelioid histiocytes on a background of lymphocytes, multi nucleated giant cells of the type of foreign body or Langhans type giant cells and can or showed no necrosis.


Thalassaemia Disease

Health in modern times is increasingly complex. Various kinds of factors such as environment, current circumstances are very influential to ease a variety of dangerous diseases lurk. A disease can affect anyone, whether male, female, old, young, even children though. It's a natural thing when the parents yearn to have children who are healthy both physically and psychologically, can pass through normal developmental stages, play, and enjoy all the usual flow of life lived by other children. However, not all parents are given a healthy child. Some of them are serious diseases, such as leukemia disease or blood disorder Thalassaemia.

Thalassaemia is a genetic disorder most often encountered and is also a disease that many experienced Americans, descendants of Italian. There are more than 100,000 babies worldwide are born with serious circumstances and conditions of such Thalassaemia, sallow skin, face thalassaemia and so on.

Until now the cause of progression of the disease still Thalassaemia can not be known apart from the second derivative of the genetic parents of the patient. Almost a phenomenon similar to the issue of HIV / AIDS which is iceberg phenomenon, as well as that in the estimate of Thalassaemia number of sufferers are not recorded more than the amount patients are recorded. Another definition states Thalassaemia is a blood disorder caused by lack of hemoglobin, so the need for regular blood transfusions.

The other problem is this disease is a disease pathway to a lifetime, meaning that this disease is a disease that can not be cured. Medical action is carried out so far will not cure but as a supportive and temporary to sustain life. The above is enough to make anyone experience the burden of mind such as anxiety and stress, especially in parents of children with The Thalassaemia disease. Cost issues and the most severe risks
are encountered by children is a major factor parental anxiety.